As the year draws to a close our Communications Manager, Kate Hawkins, provides a summary of popular content from the website over the course of a challenging year. Did your blog make the top ten? Read on to find out!
To give us an idea of which parts of our work over the year have resonated with our online audience I have put together a top ten of the most popular content on the website. This gives us some insight into you, dear reader, and will guide us in the future.
This blog by myself, Jessica Amegee and Rosie Steege provides a round up of guidance on remote methods – amalgamating knowledge from around the web. It was written when it was clear that ARISE was going to have to drastically shift its ways of working in relation to the pandemic. We’re pleased that it is a piece that has resonated with other researchers in the same boat. It’s also a good reminder that people are interested in the Community Based Participatory Research approach we use, and not just the findings.
This photo essay by Shrutika Murthy was a shining example of the multi-media communications that we are spearheading in ARISE. The photo essay grew out of our work with waste picking communities in Vijayawada, India. Suvartha collects and sell recyclables as an occupation and lives on the fringes of slums. Insights into her life and the feelings of the researcher who is walking alongside her run throughout the photo essay.
The third most popular content was a blog by Joseph Kimani who works at SDI Kenya. He provided a rousing call to action. His aim – to tackle structural violence against poor and marginalized people.
“Violence is a monster that is omnipresent in low-income areas. Slums have become synonymous with violence, crime, criminalization of youth and ‘illicit’ income activities. The feeling of oppression and deprivation makes the entire settlements a no-go-zone. As a result, innocent, poor, marginalized and vulnerable members of communities who cannot escape or leave the settlements are trapped hence affecting their health and wellbeing.”
I’m glad our students are popular. Our students bring new ideas and ways of viewing the world as well as putting in a lot of leg work. They are our foundation and we would not be the project we are without them. Bravo and onwards!
The next five most popular bits of content relate to the Twitter Chat that we held on disability and COVID-19. The event generated a lot of tweets and posters, so I knew it was popular at the time. But it’s great to know that the insights of our experts continue to be useful.
A companion piece to the photo essay by Shrutika Murthy, Shadowing Kishore explores the daily lives of waste pickers through the eyes of Prasanna Subramanya Saligram.
“Until dawn I was in an ambiguous state – oscillating between comfort and discomfort with the shadowing experience. Once daylight broke and we were going through residential areas, I began to feel distinctly uncomfortable.
I worried people might think I was the contractor overseeing Kishore.”
This piece by Jane Wairutu, Eva Muchiri and Jackline Waithaka explored Mukuru Special Planning Area and how changes in policy led to an assessment of health service provision in the settlement. Using innovative methods SDI mapped the availability of Community Health Volunteers and services, providing recommendations for the future.
This blog is unusual for the ARISE site as it is authored by a policy maker, Guillermo Hegel the former Municipal Director of Health (2014-2020) for Villa Nueva in Guatemala. It provides insights for the municipal level – which is key to tackling COVID-19 – and suggests longer term measures that can be the foundation for future pandemic responses.
This section of the site brings together all the research that we have published on COVID-19 this year. The content is an eclectic mix of audio, video, journal articles, blogs, webinars and photo stories. Keep checking back in. We regularly update the page.
“Nearly half of Mumbai lives in slums, some on uninhabitable lands – within an arm’s length of speeding trains or on pavements with their living overflowing on to the adjacent street.”
We end our round up with this blog by Vinodkumar Rao and Smruti Jukur. It explores how we will be studying aspects of relocation – the governance structures, political relationships, organisation of residents, etc. A process already underway in Mumbai and Ahmedabad.
I hope you enjoyed this round up of the top website content of the year. We commit to keeping you informed in 2021 and beyond and are pleased to usher in the New Year with you.
Lynda Keeru reports back on the third of a series of webinars hosted by the IDEAMAPS network. Speakers explored gaps in our knowledge of how to map deprived areas, how to exchange data and knowledge between stakeholders and what is missing in urban deprivation data.
IDEAMAPS are keen to overcome siloed approaches to slum mapping and ensure that deprived areas are mapped at scale and outputs are used to facilitate change. They have developed a data ecosystem that facilitates fair exchange of information and provides new opportunities for collaboration among diverse stakeholders.
The speakers were from different settings which gave the attendees a rich variety of experiences from different countries and contexts. Vinod Rao, from SPARC India is part of the ARISE consortium on health and accountability which is being implemented in four countries. Their focus is participatory action research which focusses on the health and wellbeing of slum dwellers and people living in slum relocated colonies. In ARISE data is analysed and used as a negotiation tool with state institutions.
SPARC works promoting and supporting area resource centres – which are small centres in slums and slum relocation areas across India. These centres are run by the slum dwellers themselves. The data collected helps to identify the contribution that the slum and pavement dwellers make to the city. The slum dwellers experience many challenges especially the fact that they have no access to basic resources like sanitation.
Selvi Devendra, who is part of the ARISE network and a women’s leader who works with one of the federations relayed her personal story of her life as a slum dweller and data collector and how she acts as a bridge between her community and the local government. She revealed the informal workers’ living and working conditions, as well as the multiple risks that are involved in their day to day lives. Selvi explained that life in the slums on the railway was hard because they were exposed to the sight of accidents very often and were often accused of throwing stones at people traveling on the trains. Selvi now lives in a relocation colony, a few kilometres away from her former residence. Her move was necessitated by events of a random day in which her fellow railway slum dwellers were informed of the looming demolition of their homes and their relocation. This was not only a stressful experience but an unsettling one. Much as the conditions were still dire, they had found some solace in the little security that they now knew in their previous home. Just as they were beginning to experience very basic forms of comfort, such as improved sanitation, they could no longer call this place home. SPARC however stepped in and reassured them that the new location would provide them with better security and they would help them through the transition.
Using the difficult and novel times we are living in because of the COVID-19 pandemic, Selvi explained how pivotal her role has been in building a relationship between the community and the local government. She narrated how they as a team created responsive mechanisms by using the existing community networks. With India going into a very short notice and stringent lockdown in March with absolutely no movement, the country experienced numerous challenges. This was made worse because Mumbai is home to numerous migrants from other cities in India who depend on daily labour wages for a living. The city experienced major problems related to food security. During this time, Selvi and her team were very instrumental in the mobilization and distribution of food and other essentials like medicine to the most vulnerable in the community. She was mobilizing about 1500 packets of food every day for a huge number of about 4500 families in the area in which she lives. This exercise was carried out in partnership with local leaders and government structures which promotes accountability in governance; a major pillar for the ARISE team.
Elsa Rousset and Adesola Adelani Dada, from JEI and SDI Federation (Nigeria) gave participants insights into how they successfully implemented a participatory approach and overcame perennial city-wide challenges with a household energy survey implemented across hundreds of slums and informal settlements in Lagos. They explained that they have managed to do this by embracing the concept of ‘nothing about us without us’. They apply community led approaches in their data collection processes by empowering residents of informal settlements to lead the processes of data collection. They stimulate community empowerment by ensuring that the community understand the purpose of the survey and encouraging them to take up key roles in the data collection processes. Most importantly, the participatory approach requires that the data collected is returned to the community and used to advocate for change.
A key pillar in this approach is ensuring gender inclusion and diversity in the processes by securing a representation of people from varying ethnic groups and also having on board people living with disabilities. They advised that this should also be the case for respondent selection in order to ascertain that the survey captures the true diversity of community realities. To overcome existing challenges, they make an effort to reach out to previously underrepresented local government associations.
The last presenter, Flavia Feitosa gave a presentation on how they had developed a methodology for identifying and characterizing precarious settlements in Sao Paulo. When updating and enhancing the housing plan 2011-2023 for the state of Sao Paulo; they realized that precarious settlements are one of the most relevant housing problems in the city. The MAPPA Project worked closely with a local government and a housing agency to integrate diverse spatial datasets to model the location and type of precarious settlements (favelas and informal settlements). She also described an iterative modelling-fieldwork process that enabled identification of previously unidentified precarious settlements, and multiple rounds of essential field validation data collection. This process included the improvement of information on precarious settlements and assessing housing deficit/ inadequacies both inside and outside precarious settlements. This was achieved by using models of identification and classification of typologies of precarious settlements, quantifying the total number of households in precarious settlements as well as multidimensional assessment of the housing deficit
All the presenters reiterated that research and mapping in urban informal settlements depends on the development and maintenance of trust with the communities involved. It is impossible to achieve any progress without goodwill from the community and one must involve the community every step of the way. The organizations must be willing to get around the challenges together with the community and clarify any misconceptions the community members may have and most importantly, have an understanding of the fact that the data belongs to the community and must therefore be given back to them to act upon once the collection has been completed.
Vinod Rao and Selvi Devendran, ARISE Consortium (India), Elsa Rousset and Adesola Adelani Dada, JEI and SDI Federation (Nigeria) and Flavia Feitosa, Federal University of ABC (Brazil).
If you would like to stay updated about the latest urban deprivation mapping methods, views, and experiences please join the IDEAMAPS network
Abdul Awal and Imran Hossain Mithu explain how Geographic Information System (GIS) was used by the ARISE team in Bangladesh to map Dholpur in Dhaka.
GIS mapping is a commonly used technique for visualizing an area. It can be used in a variety of ways to visualize health service utilization as well as consider the many factors related to location, which may limit people’s ability to access care from acquiring proper heath care.
Location-allocation models can identify how gaps in health services among specific communities can be reduced. Existing health services are mapped along with road networks which are used to identify and facilitate patient travel pathways and related challenges. Valuable information such as population distribution, income and poverty levels, can also be depicted to determine the best possible placement of new services, as well as to identify specific regions that are underserved.
ARISE is using a community-based participatory research approach to understand community dynamics and health and wellbeing related vulnerabilities, practices, challenges, needs and priorities. Participatory GIS mapping is one of the methods the ARISE Bangladesh team has chosen to map and document the layout of slums, infrastructures (health facilities, religious places, educational institutions, bazars, government offices, water, and electricity supply offices etc.), roads, health facilities etc.
A transect walk is a systematic walk along a defined path (transect) across the community/project area together with the local people to explore the water and sanitation conditions by observing, asking, listening, looking, and producing a transect diagram. Initially, we had a plan to co-create GIS map in April 2020 with the help of co-researchers during transect walks and then synchronize information collected through social mapping into GIS map to complete the mapping.
Suddenly the dark shadow of coronavirus loomed over us and Bangladesh was not shielded from this heinous pandemic. It seized the country from the beginning of March 2020 and is continuing. The country went into lockdown resulting in a suspension of all research field activities to ensure the safety of researchers and co-researchers.
As a result, the ARISE hub decided to apply innovative remote methodologies to research, especially data collection. The ARISE Bangladesh team came up with an innovative idea of testing remote GIS mapping and involving co-researchers remotely in the process. We were a little bit baffled at the beginning about how to complete the remote mapping, but we were able to devise a way forward.
The search for accurate data
We used QGIS 3.10.6 software for drawing the maps. However, the first challenge we faced at the initial stage was to locate our study slums from the QGIS Open Street map. We could only clearly locate Kollayanpur slum among three study slums. One possible reason could be that Kollayanpur is an old and well-known stable slum established in public land. The other two slums – Dholpur and Shaympur are comparatively new settlements and the boundaries of these slums were not identifiable using Google or Open Street maps. Therefore, we decided to search other secondary sources. However, the challenge we faced at this stage was accessing required secondary data about the three selected study sites due to unavailability of the proper data, which is essential for producing GIS maps.
In Bangladesh, slum specific data is limited and unavailable for most of the slums. The available online sources are also not updated. We found some data form the Census of Slum Areas and Floating Population 2014, however, we couldn’t use that 15 years old data as most of the slums in Bangladesh are not stable and the landscape has changed over the period. We also found some other data sources, like some survey reports or published papers from other research. However, again that data were either too old or did not have our study site specific data.
Then we explored Dhaka city maps from both North and South Dhaka City Corporations. We could only manage a digital map from Dhaka North City Corporation, unfortunately that was also not updated. We could not get a digital map from Dhaka South City Corporation as the process of getting map requires physical visit to the City Corporation office which we could not do due to the lockdown. It was also difficult to identify the specific slums from the available sources. Therefore, we applied different strategies for different slums.
In this blog, we will share our experience of conducting remote GIS mapping of Dholpur slum where we were able to involve a co-researcher remotely in the mapping process.
Dholpur, a slum located in the southern part of Dhaka city under Dhaka South City Corporation, is home to approximately 135,000 people and most of them are City Corporation workers, rickshaw pullers, waste collectors and daily wage earners. People from ethnic minority groups live there, such as the Telegu community. Schools, colleges, mosques, temples, churches and healthcare facilities are some important infrastructures around the slum. Also, there are some informal health facilities for example drug shops.
To create the GIS map of Dholpur slum, we synchronized data from multiple sources, multiple digital maps and mapping software. A co-researcher from Dholpur slum guided us throughout the whole process from the beginning to the end by providing information and validating our maps at different stages.
Step 1 – Drawing the outline
We were unable to identify the area outline of Dholpur slum from the QGIS Open Street map, Google Earth Pro, online sources, and digital maps from Dhaka South City Corporation. Earlier in the research we had met some enthusiastic members of a local youth organization in Dhlopur slum who have been actively involved in many community-based activities. We decided to reach out to them again and request their support in the remote GIS mapping as they know their community better than us.
Anwar Rana expressed an interest in working with us as a co-researcher and helped us with mapping. After explaining to him our purpose over the phone, he shared a hand-drawn community map (Figure 1) through WhatsApp. The members of the local youth organization drew the community map for the purpose of managing their organization’s activities. We were surprised and amazed by the level of detailed information in their map. That map gave us an initial idea regarding Dholpur slum area.
Then we identified Dholpur slum area in the QGIS Open Street map and drew an outline with the help of the hand-drawn community map and shared the screenshot of the map with the co-researcher through Facebook Messenger for validation. After seeing the outline, we made, Anwar marked the Dholpur slum boundary in the Google map and shared his screen with us which helped us to finalize the boundary.
Step 2 – Drawing roads and pathways
After finalizing the area outline, we started the next step of drawing roads and pathways. We identified some broad and major roads and pathways in our GIS map with the assistance of Google map, Google earth pro, Arc GIS satellite map, QGIS open street map, and GeoDASH. We also used the hand-drawn community map to draw some roads and pathways inside the slum which were not identifiable in the online sources. At that stage, we again reached out to Anwar to verify roads and pathways and he made some corrections.
Step 3 – Identifying infrastructure
After finalizing roads and pathways, we started to pin different important infrastructure like health care facilities, educational institutions, clubs, religious places, open spaces, community centres, cinema halls, bazars, government structures, water, and sanitation facilities, etc. with the help of the Urban Health Atlas, Google earth pro, Google map, and QGIS street map. We found many formal (e.g., hospital, clinic, satellite clinic, etc.) and informal (e.g., pharmacy, drug shops, etc.) healthcare facilities from the Urban Health Atlas.
To precisely pinpoint location of the landmarks, we searched for the coordinates (latitude and longitude) and placed it on our desired map. We tried to identify infrastructures inside the slum from the hand-drawn community map Anwar shared. However, we could not find specific geospatial data of those infrastructure from online sources and it was also not possible for Anwar to collect GIS points for us as he does not have access to required technology. As a result, in this remote method, we could not identify important infrastructure including healthcare facilities located inside the slum. Anwar marked and identified some informal health care facilities within the slum which we could not identify through the online sources.
The final map
After validating and adding different landmarks, we created the final GIS map of Dholpur slum (Figure 2). We also shared the final map with our Anwar. He was so excited to see the output. This digital GIS map is an additional support to visualize the different facilities within and outside the slum.
Although, the remote method of GIS mapping was very new for us, but we went through a memorable and exciting journey. The challenges we encountered at different stages of mapping process gave us the opportunity to think creatively and identify innovative alternate options and solutions to overcome the challenges. The involvement of Anwar from the beginning made our journey a lot easier. It was really challenging to connect with him remotely because of his engagements in other work and slow internet connections. However, we are very much grateful to him for his time, support, and guidance throughout the mapping process.
Once Indira Gandhi said, “every new experience brings its own maturity and greater clarity of vision,” which we realized throughout the journey of the remote GIS mapping.
Lynda Keeru summarizes what was learned at a recent webinar on building equitable partnerships in international research programmes.
International research has increasingly been taking on an equitable partnerships approach – an intentional tactic that clearly articulates the distribution of resources, responsibilities, effort and benefits within consortia. This approach also includes ethical sharing and use of data which responds to the needs of communities where the research takes place. Equitable partnerships are based on mutual respect guided by values like trust, accountability, transparency, active communication, constructive engagement and mutual learning. At the core of this approach is the importance of acknowledging the different inputs, interests and desired outcomes of all involved
The UKRI GRCF Action Against Stunting Hub hosted a webinar ‘Equitable Partnerships in international research’. The meeting sought to explore how different Hubs and institutions build, maintain, and evaluate equitable partnerships and help ensure that research outcomes are beneficial.
So, what makes for a good partnership? Some of the reflection made during the webinar included that good partnerships include:
Joint agenda setting
Clarity of roles and responsibilities
Fair recognition of incentives and interests of all partners
Building trust which requires transparency and accountability
Regular communication to avoid assumptions
Structured time investments in the partnership because building and maintaining relationships is a long term process
Regular reviews of the health of the partnership
Dispute resolution systems
Fairness and equity were identified by the UKCDR community as key factors that help to mitigate the risks of exploitation, abuse and harm. They not only reduce power imbalances but also ensure that all key stakeholders are consulted and engaged in the research process.
Chris Desmond, a Co-director of the Accelerate Hub spilled a number of gems including that even the most well-intentioned interventions have their own challenges such as systematic racism, how to make the process meaningful and not a tick box exercise and being realistic about what can be achieved during the five year horizon of most research partnerships.
Sally Theobald, the Principal Investigator of the ARISE consortium and Linet Okoth of LVCT Health shared their experience of the ongoing journey of promoting equity in partnerships guided by their theory of change. To be most effective, they agreed on shared values right from the start at the proposal writing stage and ensured that there was ongoing review of these values throughout their partnership review process and made adaptations to systems and structures as appropriate.
Equity in voice, power and resource mobilization, commitment to ethical interactions at all levels of the programme and transparency and accountability in all processes are some of these guiding values. In addition, they have put in place management structures that ensure that all partners can propose and lead sessions during monthly webinar series and partnership meetings. Their executive committee also comprises of a representation from all partners with a rotating chairing position and membership from the early career researchers’ network. Additionally, they have created thematic working groups to ensure shared responsibility and they are co-convened and led by partners from both the North and South.
Linet discussed how the ARISE safeguarding process has been developed with a focus on equity and partnership, learning and sharing, and an iterative, ongoing learning journey that is critical, reflective and inclusive of vulnerable people.
In conclusion, strong partnerships require strong foundations with clear management structures and joint responsibilities that ensure ownership. Flexibility, focus and openness are vital for strengthening partnerships.
Chair: Professor Claire Heffernan, Principal Investigator, Action Against Stunting. Speakers: Sian Zarkow, UKRI, Chris Desmond, Accelerate Hub, Sally Theobald, ARISE and Linet Okoth, ARISE.
In this blog by Jackline Waithaka and Jane Wairutu the issue of women’s leadership is explored through the identification of women making change in the informal settlements of of Nairobi, Kenya.
The world has witnessed the emergence of women leaders most of whom have rose to break the traditional glass ceilings that barred them from taking up leadership positions despite possessing the necessary skills. Over time, women have constantly evolved realizing new roles. Their progress within the society has proven substantial yet uneven as women all around continue to be vastly underrepresented in decision making as well as community set-ups. These are the facts, and they tell a story. A story of resilience and enthusiasm to lead despite the setbacks encountered.
When supported and empowered to take up leadership positions, women have exhibited the ability to lead. They have successfully demonstrated the ability to lead through organizing around issues that are fundamental to them and in the long run advance their interests for overall well-being of a community.
The Kenya movement of Slum Dwellers demonstrates that facilitating women’s leadership builds a culture of self-confidence and empowerment thereby inspiring continuous wave of female grass root leaders interested in carving out a different narrative for their communities. Paving way for emergence women to become leaders is no mean feat, however, for over 20 years, the federation has sought to support women leaders who make a large number of leaders even with the alliance, and are always seeking ways to uphold this practice in a bid to build on its vision of sustainable and inclusive communities.
Gender barriers in leadership and solutions
Being a woman, they saw as though we had no power. But because there were many of us, we combined our forces together. We did not shy, nor did we back down.
Anastacia Wairimu, Kahawa Soweto
To date, women face limited access to leadership positions despite the strides undertaken in creating positions of power for women. Anastacia Wairimu, a national federation leader who has served as a leader within the federation for fifteen years admits to having faced opposition from male counterparts. As a means to navigate through opposition from the men, Anastacia explains on importance of leveraging on their numbers in order to claim their spaces as equally competent leaders in their community.
Women leaders all around the globe are still a minority as men continue to outpace women in leadership roles in most sectors. Inclusivity in leadership remains a significant gap to address as a means to ensure achievement of gender balance within positions of power.
Nancy Njoki, also a national federation leader within the slum dweller grass root movement in Kenya, also explains, women leaders are often held to higher standards than men and many occasions, they require to do more than their male counterparts including sharing testimonials in a bid to prove one’s leadership ability.
Such preferences act as biased gate keeping factors hence the growing need for women to proactively communicate their desires to serve in leadership positions. Drawing from federation experiences, providing a supportive space for women to take up minor leadership responsibilities then advance to major responsibilities enables understanding on the importance of promoting gender inclusivity in leadership.
Family and leadership, balancing it all
It comes with its fair share of challenges. This is because even as a woman serving in a leadership position, one still needs to perform their duties as a wife and a mother. This therefore calls for one to work extra hard.
Nancy Njoki, Mathare
Family is the foundation of communities and in many settings women who double up as mothers and wives within the family setup, play a vital role in the wellbeing of a family. Women who have overtime actively claimed leadership positions within the society while taking on their family duties have demonstrated what women can do. Determining how best to align family and leadership requires consideration of both sides.
Nancy Njoki who doubles up as a mother of four, and has served as a national federation leader for ten years, explains it requires double effort to successfully juggle between the roles.
Over time women leaders have had to confidently grow into their leadership positions in order to address issues that in the past, they were unable to. In some cases, this has resulted to conflict at home or with society as Nancy Njoki further notes. It is therefore critical for women leaders to communicate with their families to ensure they understand their participation in federation activities which are geared to create positive change within the community.
In order to strike a balance, it requires carefully structuring and planning one’s activities in a bid to achieve the balance.
Navigating through the roles and leading change
It requires commitment and may take up most of your time. Commitment to other social issues can easily be overridden by leadership duties.
Emily Wangare, Mathare
Women have steadily emerged in leadership roles bringing to the exercise of leadership an arsenal of strengths.
Through volunteerism, and helping to amplify issues of the most marginalized, leaders such as Emily have taken up exceptional roles thereby contributing substantively to the development of their communities. Through her leadership role in Mathare, Emily has capitalized on her position to participate in matters community organizing through mobilizing community self-help groups in Mathare among other organized groups, and has mentored them through the essentials appertaining loan application for livelihood. Over time, the federation’s savings model mainly has given rise to the emergence of more female leaders within grass root communities as has evolved as a tool that has largely increased women’s participation in the federation.
Additionally, when community has faced eviction threats, Emily emerged at the forefront to carry out advocacy around the issued threats, a move that enabled the formation of cooperatives and as a means to lobby for community land. As a result of frequent confrontations with authorities and leading collective advocacy efforts, evictions were avoided. Despite the challenges that existed, leaders like Emily have been at the fore front of land eviction struggles in Mathare through activism further highlighting impact of women’s leadership presence on the frontline of resistance to evictions.
Further reflections from Christine Mwelu, also a national federation leader from Mukuru Viwandani, explains how her leadership role also positioned her at the forefront of major community processes. Earlier in March 2017, Mukuru was declared a Special Planning Area effectively freezing development in order to pave way for development of an integrated development plan. For over five years, Christine along with other community leaders took up central role in supporting to mobilize community to participate at every stage of the planning process. Her participation in the process seeks to depict at scale the contribution of women in matters community development if provided a platform.
To sustain the present and future tire of impactful women leaders from low income communities, it is critical to invest in women and set the agenda for continuously nurturing a wave of upcoming female grass root leaders to deliver the envisioned change.
After all, why not women?
Value academic rigour in research partnerships
Involving community researchers and the broader community in the development and validation of priorities, study tools, data collection processes, data analysis, interpretation and action planning is important to the quality of the CBPR process. Consistently engaging the community in monitoring the progress of community activities and gaining their reflexive accounts of the actions ensures rigour within the research process.
Capacities (competencies and conditions)
●Awareness of trustworthiness criteria that draw on critical epistemologies
●Ability to assess and develop contextualised code of research ethics including safeguarding
●Capacity to undertake validation exercises with stakeholders and the wider community to ensure the study is relevant, accepted and supported
●Ongoing learning, quality assessment and safeguarding assessment
●Capacity to contextualise research materials that value local ways of knowing and knowledge production
●Knowledge on how to engage in and apply reflexivity, considering positionality with regard to research findings, to strengthen rigour and trustworthiness
●Ability to triangulate different sources of information to determine research priorities, approach and actions
●After the research partnership has undertaken a process of prioritisation, and before conceptualising the research, validate the priorities and incorporate additional context to increase trustworthiness in the process
●Design research analysis and interpretation procedures that involve community researchers and associated stakeholders
●Have an outsider to help increase the rigour and real and perceived validity of the research
●Conduct data interpretation sessions to discuss interpretations, add context to information collected, and facilitate a better understanding of project documentation
●Triangulate data sources and add participant checking
●Undertake co-analysis activities with co-researchers and stakeholders
●Increase the reliability of the study by developing and using a case study protocol and a chain of evidence
●Design survey and interview questions that are culturally aligned enhancing the ﬁt of the research with the implementing context
●Identify relational and situated ethical and safeguarding concepts and approaches that best fit the specific context and the process-oriented nature of CBPR (25)
●Constructive negotiation with gatekeeping bodies such as funders and research ethics committees to increase understanding of appropriate approaches
●Engage co-researchers and community members during the research tool preparation to cover all the essential aspects of the research including safeguarding risks
Utilise quality criteria to evaluate the CBPR process – see Springett, Atkey (26) and Sandoval, Lucero (27