One in three urban dwellers now live in precarious, marginalised areas, including informal spaces; this is an estimated 881 million people in low- and middle-income countries. People living and working in informal urban spaces face interconnected challenges, including multiple intersecting health risks and vulnerabilities, and complex, fluid governance arrangements, involving a mix of actors, with […]
Much of the current discussion on safeguarding comes from the perspective of the humanitarian sector, and direct service provision and implementation. Additionally, researchers working in global health also experience safeguarding challenges, and research funders and donors require assurance that safeguarding processes and policies are developed and implemented to protect participants and researchers, yet governance in […]
One of our core strategies to affect change is to support capacity strengthening of urban marginalised co-researchers to generate, collect, and use evidence as new localised knowledge to instigate change. Strengthening capabilities of urban marginalised people to engage with research processes is central to the principles of CBPR and meaningful participation of marginalised communities. ARISE […]
Work to ensure research rigour, trustworthiness and validity of research in partnership with community researchers and community members
Involving community researchers and the broader community in the development and validation of priorities, study tools, data collection processes, data analysis, interpretation and action planning to ascertain the language used, content, context etc. Important to add quality to the CBPR process. Consistently engaging the community in monitoring the progress of community activities planned and gaining their reflexive accounts of the actions and observations will ensure rigor and validity within the research process.
Competencies and/or conditions
Ability to assess and develop contextualised code of research ethics including safeguarding.
Capacity to undertake validation exercises with stakeholders and the wider community to ensure the study is relevant, accepted and supported. Validation exercises should use effective and culturally relevant communication mechanisms that consider the audience.
Ongoing learning, quality assessment and safeguarding assessments.
Capacity to contextualise research materials that value local ways of knowing and knowledge production.
Know how to engage in and apply reflexivity, considering positionality to research findings to strengthen rigor and trustworthiness.
Ability to triangulate different sources of information in order to determine research priorities, approach and actions.
Production of scientifically sound research findings.
Identification of generalisable research processes that can enhance CBPR techniques.
Community based research that is robust and adds value to communities, policies and practices.
For community members, learning research skills, gaining access to resources, and finding ways to legitimate their knowledge is often limited by a history of exclusionary research practices that have traditionally conducted studies on rather than with the community.
After the research partnership has undertaken a process of prioritisation, and before conceptualizing the research, discuss with the broader community to validate the priorities and incorporate additional context to increase validity and trustworthiness to the process
Design research analysis and interpretation procedures that involve community researchers and associated stakeholders
Having an outsider, such as a partnership stakeholder or subcommittee engaged in data gathering and interpreting can be useful in helping increase the rigor and real and perceived validity of the research
Conduct data interpretation sessions to discuss interpretations, add context to information collected, and facilitate a better understanding of project documentation
Triangulation of data sources and participant checking can add quality
Undertake co-analysis activities with co-researchers and stakeholders
Increase reliability of the study by developing and using a case study protocol and a chain of evidence
Design survey and interview questions that are culturally aligned enhancing the ﬁt of the research with the implementing context(s)
Ensure a balance between adhering to quality and safeguarding (19) standards of research excellence while engaging in the complex and politicized contexts surrounding work with marginalized communities.
Engagement of coresearchers and community people during the research tool preparation can help to cover all the essential aspects of the research including safeguarding risks.
Utilise quality criteria to evaluate the CBPR process – see Springett, Atkey (20) and Sandoval, Lucero (21)